Writing about the 100th anniversary of the First World War Armistice in History, war and remembering in 2018, had me thinking about the events of 1918 that led to this historical moment.
The 1918 First World War chronology below is taken from Peter Englund’s brilliant book The Beauty and the Sorrow, which I will be writing about in a future post, because I have to sing its praises.
After an armistice, German forces begin to advance again in Russia
Peace is made between the Central Powers and Russia at Brest-Litovsk (today, in Belarus)
Continued allied offensive in Mesopotamia (today, Iraq)
Start of a major German offensive in the west.
French counter-attack in the west temporarily halts the German offensive
Start of a renewed German offensive in north-west France. Significant gains.
Start of a German offensive in Flanders. Significant gains.
The first American units go into battle on the western front.
British forces take Kirkuk in Mesopotamia.
British forces land in Murmansk (Russia).
Start of the German offensive around Aisne (France), major gains. The Germans soon reach the Marne (France).
Major Austro-Hungarian offensive on the Piave (Italy). Minor gains.
Start of major German offensive on the Marne. Some gains. Three days later a powerful allied counter-attack forces Germans to retreat.
Start of major allied offensive at Amiens (France). Very significant gains.
Start of the general German retreat to behind the Hindenburg line.
Allied offensive in Macedonia. Bulgarian army forced into a general retreat.
Start of a major British offensive in Palestine. Major gains.
Start of American offensive in Argonne (France). Significant gains.
Start of major allied offensive in Flanders. Significant gains.
After massive attacks the whole of the Hindenburg line is finally broken through.
Allied offensive on the Piave. Very significant gains.
The Ottoman army in Mesopotamia capitulates.
Revolution in Vienna. The Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy is dissolved.
The Serbian army liberates Belgrade (Serbia)
German mutiny begins in the high seas fleet in Kiel (Germany)
Armistice between the Allies and Austria-Hungary comes into effect.
German republic proclaimed following revolution in Berlin. Kaiser Wilhelm II announces his abdication.
Armistice. All military action ceases at 11.00 in the morning.
1917 Postcard showing two soldiers, one in the uniform of the Allies leaning on the soldier in French uniform