Tag Archives: anniversaries

April, the month of remembrance

My mind is on the First World War this month. Anzac Day, will be commemorated this month. On this day (25 April) Australians and New Zealanders remember those who have served and died in war. It marks the anniversary of the first major military action fought by Australian and New Zealand forces during the First World War. This was the landing on Gallipoli, which happened 103 years ago, in April 1915.

 

download-4-e1522922541216.jpeg

Postcard celebrating the end of World War I, 1919

Advertisements

1918, before the Armistice

Writing about the 100th anniversary of the First World War Armistice in History, war and remembering in 2018, had me thinking about the events of 1918 that led to this historical moment.

The 1918 First World War chronology below is taken from Peter Englund’s brilliant book The Beauty and the Sorrow, which I will be writing about in a future post, because I have to sing its praises.

 

1918

February

18

After an armistice, German forces begin to advance again in Russia

March

3

Peace is made between the Central Powers and Russia at Brest-Litovsk (today, in Belarus)

9

Continued allied offensive in Mesopotamia (today, Iraq)

21

Start of a major German offensive in the west.

29

French counter-attack in the west temporarily halts the German offensive

April

4

Start of a renewed German offensive in north-west France. Significant gains.

9

Start of a German offensive in Flanders. Significant gains.

May

1

The first American units go into battle on the western front.

7

British forces take Kirkuk in Mesopotamia.

24

British forces land in Murmansk (Russia).

29

Start of the German offensive around Aisne (France), major gains. The Germans soon reach the Marne (France).

June

15

Major Austro-Hungarian offensive on the Piave (Italy). Minor gains.

July

15

Start of major German offensive on the Marne. Some gains. Three days later a powerful allied counter-attack forces Germans to retreat.

August

8

Start of major allied offensive at Amiens (France). Very significant gains.

September

3

Start of the general German retreat to behind the Hindenburg line.

15

Allied offensive in Macedonia. Bulgarian army forced into a general retreat.

19

Start of a major British offensive in Palestine. Major gains.

26

Start of American offensive in Argonne (France). Significant gains.

28

Start of major allied offensive in Flanders. Significant gains.

30

Bulgaria capitulates.

October

10

After massive attacks the whole of the Hindenburg line is finally broken through.

24

Allied offensive on the Piave. Very significant gains.

30

The Ottoman army in Mesopotamia capitulates.

31

Revolution in Vienna. The Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy is dissolved.

November

1

The Serbian army liberates Belgrade (Serbia)

3

German mutiny begins in the high seas fleet in Kiel (Germany)

4

Armistice between the Allies and Austria-Hungary comes into effect.

9

German republic proclaimed following revolution in Berlin. Kaiser Wilhelm II announces his abdication.

11

Armistice. All military action ceases at 11.00 in the morning.

 

download-20-e1516938637972.jpeg

1917 Postcard showing two soldiers, one in the uniform of the Allies leaning on the soldier in French uniform

 

 

History, war and remembering in 2018

100th anniversary of the First World War Armistice

The 100th anniversary of the First World War Armistice will be one of the most notable anniversaries commemorated in 2018.

On 11 November 2018 it will be one hundred years since the First World War Armistice. On this day,  at the eleventh hour, all military action ceased — four years of global war ended.

In allied countries, like Australia, the news of the Armistice and their victory was greeted with immense joy. Reconciling the real cost of the war would come later.

The Australian War Memorial will commemorate the centenary of the Armistice with a creative public program, which will combine public activities, displays, installations and events for the five-week period from 5 October to Remembrance Day, on 11 November 2018. Details can be found here.

The centrepiece for the commemorations will be the installation of 62,000 knitted red poppy flowers on the Memorial’s grounds. Each poppy represents an Australian life lost in the First World War, who are individually listed on the Memorial’s Roll of Honour.

Other 2018 military anniversaries

Other significant military anniversaries in 2018 include:

1 May 2018: 75th anniversary of the Battle of the Atlantic in 1943
13 May 2018: 50th anniversary of the Battles at Fire Support Bases Coral and Balmoral (Vietnam War) in 1968
27 July 2018: 65th anniversary of the Korean War Armistice in 1953
16 October 2018: 75th anniversary of Australian work on Hell Fire Pass and completion of the Thai Burma Railway in 1943

What will you be remembering in 2018?

download (17)

Armistice Day, 1918, Swanston St. Melbourne

 

 

Remember this is a voice from the tomb

James Wilson was one of the last convicts transported to Australia. His words below are from a smuggled letter sent in 1874 to John Devoy, a Fenian leader, in America. James Wilson’s desperate appeal led the American Fenians to organise the 1876 Catalpa rescue — the liberation of six Fenian convicts from Fremantle gaol.


 

Now, dear friend, remember this is a voice from the tomb…we have been nearly nine years in this living tomb…it is impossible for mind or body to withstand the continual strain…one or the other must give away.
— James Wilson

 

download (9)

The last convicts transported to Australia

Very best wishes for the New Year.

Today, is the anniversary of a significant date in Australian history.

One-hundred and fifty years ago convicts stopped being transported to Australia. The last convicts arrived at Fremantle, Western Australia on 10 January 1868, on the ship Hougoumont.

According to Richard Reid in Sinners, Saints & Settlers, 62 of these last convicts were Irishmen who would not have accepted their criminal status. They were Fenians, part of the revolutionary 19th century movement to establish an Irish Republic, through physical force if necessary. Forty-five of the men were political prisoners, tried for treasonous acts or taking part in attempted uprisings in 1867. The remaining men were military Fenians —  soldiers in the British army court-martialed for mutinous conduct.

You can find interesting articles about the Hougoumont and the end of convict transportation in Troves Digitised Newspapers. One article, that caught my interest was the Perth newspaper, the Inquirer and Commercial News, listing on 15 January 1867 of the Fenian convicts and the sentences they received. See below for this or you can find it here.

 

list of convicts

2nd list of convicts

The sentence hanged, drawn & quartered must have been underlined in the original newspaper. It is a bit disturbing knowing this sentence was actually given to convicts. Agree or disagree? 

100th anniversary of the Battle of Beersheba

Yesterday (31 October) was the centenary of the Battle of Beersheba. One hundred years ago Australian light horsemen charged against Turkish defences to capture the town of Beersheba.

The account below explaining the Battle of Beersheba is taken from two books that I often reach for when I am trying to understand Australia’s military involvement in the First World War — The Encyclopaedia of Australia’s Battles by Chris Clark and Broken Nation by Joan Beaumont.

Australians were in Palestine as part of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF). The commander-in-chief of the EEF, General Sir Edmund Allenby had been told by the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George to take Jerusalem as a Christmas gift for the British nation. To do this the EEF needed to break the Turkish defensive line focussed on Gaza and Beersheba.

Allenby decided that this would be done by capturing Beersheba and its valuable water wells and then moving onto Gaza. The plan had British infantry troops attacking Beersheba and Gaza simultaneously, while the Australian and New Zealand horsemen of the Desert Mounted Corps would come in from another direction to also attack Beersheba.

By the afternoon of the 31 October the Desert Mounted Corps were in place for the final attack on Beersheba. Taking the town had become critical because of the desperate need for water. Lieutenant General Harry Chauvel, the Australian commander of the Desert Mounted Corps called upon the fresh troops of Brigadier General William Grant’s 4th Light Horse Brigade to lead the attack.

It was decided that given the urgency of the situation the attack would be a high risk cavalry charge across open ground. The 4th and 12th Light Horse Regiments formed three lines about 500 metres apart, with five metres between each rider. Not having cavalry weapons, the lance or sabre, the troops made do by carrying their long bayonets in their hands.

As they approached the Turkish trenches the light horsemen broke into a gallop, drew bayonets and yelled wildly. Turkish field guns, machine guns, rifles and even German aerial bombing were unable to stop the charge. The unexpected speed and momentum of the light horsemen allowed them to quickly overtake the Turkish defenders. Within an hour all resistance collapsed.

For Australians the successful charge at Beersheba was welcomed news after the frightful stories of futility coming from the Western front in 1917. Below is one of the early news reports of the breakthrough at Beersheba. This understated account, with map, appeared in Hobart’s newspaper  The Mercury on the 3 November 1917. Later accounts like this one in the Singleton Argus on the 8 November 1917, which highlighted the ANZACs feats, would help to build the national memory of Beersheba as a moment of Australian exceptionalism.

 

Beersheba report

 

Centenary of the First Battle for Passchendaele

Yesterday (12 October) was the centenary of the First Battle for Passchendaele. This was the last major Australian engagement in the Third Ypres campaign on the Western Front. Australian, New Zealand and British forces unsuccessfully attempted to take the Passchendaele heights from the defending Germans.

For Australians, Passchendaele became shorthand for the slaughter and suffering of the  Western Front. The fighting was ferocious, in heavy rain and on an endless pool of mud. The battle left seven thousand ANZACs dead or injured. Below is one of the many reports that appeared in Australian newspapers in the immediate aftermath of the First Battle for Passchendaele. This one was published on 16 October 1917 in The Riverine Grazier (Hay, NSW : 1873 – 1954).

todays latest